According to the 2016 Indian Exclusion Report (IXR) released by the Centre for Equity Studies (CES), in terms of exclusion from access to public goods, Dalits, Adivasis and Muslims continue to remain the worst-hit communities. The report has found out that the same historically disadvantaged groups such as Dalits, Adivasis, Muslims, and persons with disabilities and age-related vulnerabilities continue to remain as the most severely and consistently excluded groups of the society.
2016 Indian Exclusion Report reviews exclusion of highly vulnerable groups with respect to following four public goods:
- Agricultural land
- Digital access
- Pensions for the elderly
- Legal justice for undertrials
The report has observed that Dalits, Adivasis, Muslims, and persons with disabilities and age-related vulnerabilities are the groups which have consistently been most prone to exclusion from any developments and advancements.